The Bazna is a big size Romanian pig that has a characteristic white belt around its black body. With its high adaptability to any conditions, they are much demanded by farmers and breeders. However, these animals are gradually losing their genetic characteristics since the producers are not completely dedicated to preserving the breed’s purity. This pork is a popular Transylvanian specialty.
|Other Names||Porcul de Banat, Basner|
|Characteristics||Males are heavier than the females. Shinbone perimeter between 7 1/8 to 8 inches (18 to 20 cm); foot has four toes pointing downwards while walking; small and firmly attached neck; the trunk is average broad, deep and somewhat round; top line of the body is convex|
|Personality Traits||Highly adaptable|
|Coat Hair||Dense, smooth, and somewhat curly with average length of 4 cm|
|Uses||Pork production (especially bacon)|
|Lifespan/Expectancy||8 to 12 years|
|Weight||At Birth – 1.2 kg
At 1 month – 5.6 kg
At 2 months – 14 kg
At 6 months – 60-65 kg
At 1 year – 125-135 kg
Adult – boar: 180-220 kg; sow: 160-180 kg
|Height (size)||74-78 cm at the withers|
|Litter Size||9.5 piglets per litter (average)|
|Diet||Corn and cereals like wheat, barley, roots, pasture, potatoes, corn, food wastes. Develops well without concentrated food|
|Country of Origin||Romania|
History and Development
It was back in 1872 that the Bazna swine started to develop by crossing the ‘Mangalitsa’ swines with the ‘Berkshires’. However, after the development of this new breed, it was bettered and homogenized with the help of other breeds as well. Pig breeds like the Wessex, the Hampshire, the Yorkshire, and the Angler Sattelschwein were all used for betterment and to help the breed get reformed.
In 1958, this breed got the official recognition in Romania. Soon after their reformation, the Bazna pigs got widely spread across the towns of Sibiu, Fagarash, and Mediash. They got popularized as they began displaying characteristics that made them superior to other pig breeds like Mangalitsa and Stocli.
By the end of the World War II, the Baznas breed also spread across other regions of Transylvania including the counties of Hunedoara, Muresh, Hargita, Cluj, and Alba. During some population movements, they also spread in Banat. This breed specifically spread in the mountainous mountains and hilly regions.
The female bazna pigs do not need special farrow boxes, and are able to breed in minimal household conditions. For the purpose of adaptation during lactation and the winter months, the sows can accumulate a large amount of fat as protection. They are able to lactate the piglets for up to 2 months of age. The baby pigs are less sensitive and much more resistant, unlike many other breeds.
The pork of the bazna has excellent fat and is said to be the tastiest, since it has a different succulent tenderness and aroma. Especially the bacon is buttery and soft, melting in the mouth. It has also been recognized by the experts. This is well-suited in producing fat-based cured meats, which is almost white in color, and has no red parts.
Unlike commercial pork, the meat of this pig has lipids (fat content) with a lower density, and hence, has a nominal amount of ‘bad cholesterol’, which is comparable to the pork of only the Vietnamese and the Mangaliţa breeds. It is rich in lipoprotein (good cholesterol). The young baznas weigh around 90-110 kg at slaughtering. The best meat can be obtained when the swines are between 140 and 160 kg when the lean/fat ratio is 1.3:1.4.
- During fattening period, the daily weight gain of an average Bazna is 550-600 gm with a food conversion of 5.5 kg.
- The Baznas have never been promoted since the fat was not cost efficient for the dealer, the butchery, or the producer, with only 1 kilo of bacon being obtained with double the cost of 1 kg of meat.