The Pandharpuri Buffalo is a breed of bovines that developed in the Indian state of Maharashtra, and can easily be identified by their characteristic long, sword shaped or twisted horns. These water buffalo are known for their high milk-yielding capacity, and adaptability to the draught prone area, where they are primarily distributed. They are very common in the rural milk producing farms in these areas.
|Also known as||Dharwari|
|Physical Characteristics||Medium sized and compact body animal and hair color is grey, tan and blakish; the head profile is convex to flat, while white spots may be found on forehead, muzzle and pastern regions of body; the face is long and narrow with a prominent nasal bone. They have a stout legs and a short tail, in which a white switch is common, with the color pattern of the switch of tail comprising of 72.92% white and 27.08% black; the neck is comparatively longer and thinner than many other breeds|
|Horn||The horns are very long and can be up to 1-1.5 cm, tending to move upwards and backwards, with an outward twist almost touching the backbone. In 49.92% of the buffalo, the horn tip is directed upward, while 28.23% of the individuals have lateral horns|
|Uses||Milk production, dairy; also for ploughing|
|Popular Traits||Can yield high quality milk; extremely hardy and economical to rear even in dry weather conditions|
|Calving||Once a year|
|Lactation Duration||305 days|
|Height (size)||Bulls: 144.48 cm;|
Milching Buffalo: 133.56 cm
|Food/Diet||Roughage based diet, paddy straw, sorghum straw, dry/green grasses, sugarcane tops, sugarcane leaves, jowar straw (sorghum straw)|
|Country of Origin||India|
History and Development
These buffalo are said to have been reared for more than 150 years in the breeding tract by the local ‘Gawli’ or ‘Gavoli’ community for the production of milk. Milk marketing at the road side, known as ‘Katta’ milking in the local languages, was a traditional activity of groups of the Gawli people in Kolhapur. The bovines had royal patronage from Kolhapur for the production of fresh milk for the wrestlers of the area.
The population of these buffalo are dense in primarily in Pandharpur, North and South Solapur, Barshi, Akkalkot, Sangola and Mangalvedha tehsils of Solapur district; Miraj, Walwa, Jathand Tasgaon tehsils of Sangli district; and Karveer, Shirol, Panhala, Radhanagri, Hatkanangale and Gadhinglaj tehsils of Kolhapur district. The breeding tract of the Pandharpuris includes Solapur, Sangli and Kolhapur districts of Maharashtra.
Famous of their high reproductive ability, the Pandharpuri buffalo give birth to one calf every 12 months (average 465 days). The average age of first calving (reproduction) is about 44.8 months (as against the age of first mating in males being 40.81 months).
If the management conditions are average and the climate is dry and hot, they produce about 6-7 liters of milk per day. Although, under good management, they are able to easily yield up to 15 liters of milk per day, summing to a total of 1790 kilo grams of milk per 305 days of the lactation period. The milk has 8% fat.
The cattle farmers would take these animals to from door to door, giving customer service as per requirement. The usual milking time of these buffalo in the morning is between 5 and 6.30 AM, and between 4 and 5.30 PM in the afternoon/evening.
- At present, the price of Pandharpuri Buffalo is anything between INR 15 and 45,000 in Maharashtra.
- While 86.51% of the cattle are black, 13.14% are brown complexioned.
- There are four types of horn orientation in these buffalo that have been termed in local names. More than half (52.05%) have type ‘Toki’, 34.24% have ‘Bharkand’, 10.81% have type ‘Meti’, while the remaining very few (2.09%) have ‘Ekshing’ type of horns.